Replacement and Repair Costs

 

 

Use the following information to get a good idea of the costs associated with this comprehensive list of small to large renovation and construction projects. If you have any other prices you think should be added or changed, please email us with any updates and or changes. All rights are reserved and this list is copyrighted but it can be used for personal use and any other use will only be allowed upon written permission from OntarioContractors.com.

Roofing & Flashing
Removal of existing material, disposal & clean-up. $0.50 – 2.00 sq.ft.
Garbage Bin – small $250
Garbage Bin – large $475
* additional $50 per pick-up and dumping fee from your local dump (tonnage) will be added to the above charges.

 

Roofing (material & labour)
1. Asphalt Shingles – felt base $1.50 – 1.75 sq.ft.
2. Roofing Labour only
another rule of thumb is using the pitch number and multiplying it by the number of bundles to come up with the cost of labour plus 10 % – no removal of existing material. i.e. pitch * bundles = labour (+ 10 %)
3. Asphalt Shingles – fibreglass base $2.00 – 3.00 sq.ft.
4. Cedar Shakes – hand split $2.60 – 2.80 sq.ft.
5. Cedar Shingles – saw cut $2.40 – 3.00 sq.ft.
6. Steel shingles – painted $4.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
7. Steel shingles – vinyl coated $4.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
8. Steel roof – sheeting 3 times cost of ashphalt shingles
9. Aluminum shingles – paint finish $5.50 – 5.25 sq.ft.
10. Plastic Shakes – colour through $3.50 – 5.25 sq.ft.
11. Tiles – Concrete or Clay $4.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
12. New slate roof $10.00 – 30.00 sq.ft.
13. Slate roof – with replacement $30.00 – 50.00 sq.ft.
14. New roof sheeting – plywood or waferboard $1.50 – 2.00 sq.ft.
15. Roll roofing $1.10 – 2.20 sq.ft.
16. Built up Tar & Gravel roof $4.00 – 6.00 sq.ft.
17. Membrane roof n/a
18. Sprayed Polyurethane foam $1.60 – 2.50 sq.ft.
19. Painted Membrane $0.55 – 1.50 sq.ft.
* Contractor call out for repair – $300 minimum

 

Flashing
It is advisable to replace all roof flashing at the time a new roof is installed. The cost of installations at that time is minimal, compared to possible problems old flashing may cause if they remained. Counter flashing may be installed at any time over existing step or chimney flashing and can be colour coordinated to a homes exterior.
Step Flashing usually included w/roof price
Counter Flashing – galvanized sheet metal $1.50 – 2.50 lin.ft.
Counter Flashing – sheet aluminum $3.00 – 6.00 lin.ft.
Drip Edge – usually included $1.00 – 2.00 lin.ft.
Chimney Flashing – galvanized usually included
Chimney Cricket – aluminum or galvanized $200.00 – 500.00
Skylight Flashing – aluminum or galvanized $200.00 – up
Vinyl Flashing – patch repair only $175.00 – 275.00
Replace Parapet wall flashing $10.00 – 40.00 lin.ft.
Plumbing Vent flashing $95.00 – $155 each

 

Chimneys
Reconstruction of any Chimney is difficult to assess and no repair can be called typical, since many factors such as height, required scaffolding etc. will have to be taken into consideration. Therefore it is recommended that you call three contractors for estimates and base your choice not on price but the contractors reputation and references.
Re-brick Chimney above roofline – single flue $150.00 – up lin.ft.
Re-brick Chimney above roofline – double flue $200.00 – up lin.ft.
Replace Prefabed Chimney section $65.00 – 150.00 per section
Repoint Masonry – above roofline $20.00 – 50.00 per row
Install Chimney Cap $125.00 – 500.00 each
Chimney/rain Cap $35.00 – 100.00 each

 

Gutters & Downpipes
Gutters & downpipes – aluminum $1.50 – 4.00 lin.ft.
Supply extruded gutter only $2.00-3.00 lin.ft.
Gutters & downpipes – vinyl $2.50 – 4.00 lin.ft.
Gutters & downpipes – copper $10.00 – 25.00 lin.ft.
Downpipe Extension – replace $15.00 – 75.00 each
Eaves cleaning – end of fall $150.00 – 250.00

 

Fascia, Soffit & Exterior Trim – Supply & installed
All aluminum & vinyl soffit or fascia is usually installed over a solid base like plywood-extra is required for prefabrication.
Wood Fascia Board – non painted $2.00 – 3.75 lin.ft.
Aluminum fascia $1.80 – 3.50 lin.ft.
Vinyl fascia $1.70 – 3.00 lin.ft.
Aluminum soffits $1.70 – 3.00 lin.ft.
Vinyl soffits $1.70 – 3.00 lin.ft.
Decorative trims – wall mouldings $6.00 – up lin.ft.
Decorative & functional vents $85.00 – $150 each

 

Exterior Finishes
* Pricing is per square foot of “board” not per square foot of house space.
Aluminum siding-non insulated $1.90 – 3.00 sq.ft.
(if you were making the exterior truly maintenace free then you would have to add the costs for fascia, soffit,gutter & downpipe installation for the total price for a complete upgrade to aluminum siding-watch out for these pricing tricks or “extra’s” – see above pricing)
Aluminum siding – some insulation $2.40 – 4.80 sq.ft.
Aluminum siding – R2000 $3.60 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Vinyl siding – not insulated $1.80 – 3.60 sq.ft.
Hardboard Siding – non insulated $3.60 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Wood siding – paint grade $1.80 – 4.80 sq.ft.
Wood siding – clear cedar $3.60 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Vinyl shakes $1.80 – 3.60 sq.ft.
Aluminum cladding – of windows, sills, posts etc. $1.80 – 12.00 lin.ft.
Exterior Stucco – sand & cement $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Exterior Stucco – Latex based $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Repointing – brick work $7.00 -10.00 sq.ft.
Brick – new installation $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Brick extra’s -arches over windows,coined corners $24.00 – up each
Brick -cost per 1,000 (average);approx 3.33/sq.ft. $440.00 – 850.00
Brick -labour cost per 1,000; you supply sand $550.00 – up
Replace brick $18.00 – up sq.ft.
Parapet Wall – reconstruction $25.00 – up sq.ft.
Stone Work – Man made stone $12.00 – 13.40 sq.ft.
Stone Work – Natural stone $20.00 – 36.00 sq.ft.
Brick cleaning-Chemical wash $2.40 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Brick Sealing -after cleaning $0.65 – 1.80 sq.ft.
Exterior painting- fascia, soffit, doors, windows $1,200.00- up
Exterior painting- including trims & walls $2,500.00 – up
Foundation Parging $2.00 – 2.50 sq.ft.
Exterior foundation damp proofing $4,000.00 – up
Damp proofing – new house construction $1,200.00 – 1,500.00
* includes perimeter drainage tile, 3/4 gravel, tar spray & plastic membrane skirt – usually this is included in the foundation price
Perimeter drainage tiles, O-pipe $4,000.00 – up
Foundation Cracks -wet basement $400.00 – 500.00
Interior foundation damp proofing /French Drain installation $2,200.00 – up / – up
Yard drainage $250.00 – up
Storm Windows – supplied & installed $175.00 – up each
Storm doors $375.00 – up each
Resurface existing Asphalt driveway $2.00 – 3.00 sq.ft.
Asphalt driveway – new construction $1.00 – 1.25 sq.ft.
Seal Asphalt driveway $75.00 – up
Install interlocking paving stone driveway $2.00 – 7.00 sq.ft.
New concrete driveway – plain $4.00 – 7.00 sq.ft.
New concrete driveway – stamped; stampcrete $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Install wooden deck $1,200.00 – up
Deck – Supply and Install $20.00 sq.ft.
Concrete patio $6.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Concrete patio stones $2.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
Exterior basement stairway restoration $1,500 – up
Exterior basement stairway installation $4,000.00 – up
Exterior basement stairway installation – new house $1,200.00 – 1,500.00 each
Existing Exterior basement stairway – drainage $500.00 – up
Demolition and removal of detached garage $2,300 – up
Construction of a new detached garage – single $10,000.00 – up
Construction of a new detached garage – double $15,000.00 – up
Garage doors – single $800.00 – 1,500.00
Garage doors – double $1000.00 – 2,000.00
* eg. 2 maintenance free aluminum insulated doors for a new house construction or rough – in ready installation costs $1,200.00 in the London Area.
Garage door opener $350.00 – 500.00
Replace porch or deck flooring $3.00 – up
Replace porch or deck skirting $3.00 – up
Replace porch stairs – wood $200.00 – up
Replace porch stairs – concrete $300.00 – up
Replace porch stair railings $200.00 – up
Replace porch railings $8.00 – up lin.ft.
Retaining wall – wood $20.00 – up sq.ft.
Retaining wall – concrete $30.00 – up sq.ft.
Retaining wall – gabion;rock basket $25.00 – up sq.ft. /-up lin ft
Retaining wall – steel erosion control $130.00 -up lin.ft.
Property fencing – wood $15.00 – up lin.ft.
Property fencing – chain link $8.00 – up lin.ft.
Lawn – New sod $1.50 – 2.50 sq.ft.
Lawn – New seed; seeding – 1/4 acre lot $500.00 – up
Lawn sprinkler system $1,000.00 – up

 

Structure Modifications & Renovations
Foundation – Underpin one corner of house $3,000.00 – up
Foundation – Underpin or add $3,000.00 – up
Foundation – Lower basement floor by underpinning $5,000.00 – up
Lower basement floor with bench footings $5,000.00 – up
Replace load bearing basement beam $1,600.00 – up
Install additional joist along side for support $110.00 – up
Jackpost – install $325.00 – 550.00
Termite treatment – chemical $1,200.00 – up
Termite inspection $150.00 – 200.00
Opening or Removal of bearing wall $750.00 – 1,500.00
Opening & Installing door in interior wall $600.00 – up
Rebuild arch over door or window openings $500.00 – up
Install lintel in masonary wall opening $350.00 – up
Construct exterior basement stairwell $5,000.00 – up
Collar Ties $300.00 – up
Collar Tie bracing $150.00 – 250.00
Building an addition – basic quality $70.00 – 90.00 sq.ft.
Building an addition – good quality $90.00 – 110.00 sq.ft.
Building an addition – Custom quality $110.00 – up sq.ft.

 

Interior Renovations
Remove old plaster & install drywall $2.50 -5.00 sq.ft.
Install drywall over exiting plaster $1.50 – 3.00 (board) sq.ft.
New Plaster $8.00 – 11..00 sq.ft.
Install drywall in an unfinished area -supply and install/no insulation $7.00 – 9.00 sq.ft. floor space/.14 sq.ft. board
Texture spray ceiling $1.00 – up sq.ft.
* New house construction- 080 sq.ft. board -board, mud/tape, labour only.
Suspended Ceiling Tile Installation $2.50 – 6.00 sq.ft.
Acoustic Ceiling Tile Installation $1.50 – 5.00 sq.ft.
Sand & Finish existing wood floors $2.00 – 4.00 sq.ft.
Wood floor installation $5.50 – 12.00 sq.ft.
Ceramic Tile – Supply & install $10.00 – up sq.ft.
Ceramic Tile – labour only $5.50 -8.00 sq.ft.
Underlay – installation only $1.50 -2.00 sq.ft.
Vinyl floor tiles – supply & install $2.00 – up sq.ft.
Vinyl sheet flooring/linoleum $6.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – synthetic $15.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – natural wool $50.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – underpading $5.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – cleaning/steam/chemical $30.00 – up per room
Windows-replacement – 1,800 sq.ft. house $10,000.00 approx.
* amount may vary depending upon the situation.
Windows – sliders, casement, awning, doublehung – installed $140.00 – up
Windows – fixed, bay, bow, round – installed $1,200.00- up
Doors – exterior, insulated,metal $750.00 – up
Doors – exterior, solid wood $850.00 – up
Doors – exterior, fibreglass $900.00 – up
Doors – exterior, double, insul., metal $1,200.00 – up
Doors – exterior, double, solid wood $1,500.00 – up
Doors – exterior, double, fibreglass $2,000.00 – up
Replace entrance door latch & lock set $150.00 – up
Install decorative glass in entrance door $500.00 – up
New Storm door $450.00 – up
Install patio doors – brick wall $2,500.00 – up
Install patio doors – wood frame wall $2000.00 – up
Replace existing patio doors $1000.00 – 2000.00
Install basic skylight $1,000.00 – up
Install venting skylight $1,500.00 – up
Fireplace – Masonry $2,500.00 – up
* Note: Ont. Building Code for new house construction may require CO detector & fresh air exchanger ($2,500.00 – up) for wood burning fireplaces-gas does not require this.
Fireplace – Zero clearance $2,000.00 – up
Fireplace – Natural Gas $2,300.00 – up
Glass fireplace doors $250.00 – up
Install Fireplace damper $250.00 – up
Chimney cleaning $200.00 – 375.00
Video Chimney inspection $250.00 – up
Video Plumbing inspection $150.00 – up
* Video inspections start at $110/hr – plumbing, chimney – whatever the case.
Interior door – hollow core, hardware incl $150.00 – up
Interior door – solid core, hardware incl. $400.00 – up
French doors $600.00 – up
Bifold doors $75.00 – up
Louvred Bifold doors $150.00 – up
Sliding closet doors $200.00 – up
Sliding mirror closet doors $350.00 – up
Kitchen renovation – full $7,000.00 – up
Kitchen Cabinets – replace $150.00 – up lin.ft.
Kitchen counter – replace $25.00 – up lin.ft.
Stove fan-venting outside $475.00 – up
Ceiling fan – installed $200.00 – up
Painting – interior – whole house $1,500.00 – up
Wallpaper – hanging $2.00 – up sq.ft.
Central vacuum system $800.00 – up
Security System – you own $600.00 – up

 

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
Mid efficiency Furnace – supply & install $2,500.00 -3,500.00
High effiency furnace – supply & install $3,500.00 – 4,500.00
Boiler System $3,500.00 – up
Humidifier $400.00 -500.00
Electronic air cleaner $500.00 – 1,000.00
New circulating pump $450.00 – 700.00
Expansion tank $360.00 – 650.00
New Chimney liner $330.00 – 700.00
Remove old oil tank $300.00 – 800.00
Replace radiator $300.00 – 1,000.00
Replace radiator control valve $150.00 – 300.00
Install baseboard heaters $150.00 – 300.00
Convert furnace from oil to natural gas (if possible) $900.00 – 1,500.00
Change heating from Hot water to gas – single level $7,500.00 – 9,500.00
Change heating from Hot water to gas – double level $15,000.00 – 20,000.00
Change ducts from gravity to forced air $1,000.00 – 1,500.00
Duct cleaning $250.00 – 350.00
Annual Service $150.00 – 250.00
Air Conditioning – add to existing forced air $1,700.00 – 3,000.00
Heat Pump – add to existing /Geothermal $2,500.00 – 4,000.00 / ,000 & up
Replace compressor on heat pump/air conditioner $800.00 – 1,400.00
Air conditioning – independent system $8,000.00 – 15,000.00

 

Electrical
* Installation & supply is assumed, and the contractor is on the site for more than one electrical job listed below, otherwise sufficient allowances for travel time and increased costs/opportunity costs, should be made.
Upgrade service to 100 amps – incl. New breaker panel $850.00 – 1100.00
Upgrade service to 100 amps – no breaker panel $800.00 – 1200.00
Upgrade service to 200 amps $1,000.00 – 1,500.00
Replace main ground – public water sytem $200.00 – 350.00
Replace main ground – private well to ground rods $275.00 – 500.00
New Breaker Panel $700.00 – 1200.00
Auxiliary Panel $300.00 – 600.00
Replace circuit breaker – 20 amps or less $80.00 – 110.00
Add 120 V circuit – ie fridge, freezer etc $250.00 – 400.00
Install exterior outlet $250.00 – 400.00
Add 240 V circuit – ie. Stove, dryer $350.00 – 650.00
Add Kitchen split receptacle $250.00 – 450.00
Supply ground for std. receptacles $75.00 – 150.00
Replace receptacles with GFI (Ground Fault Interrupt) $90.00 – 120.00 each
Correct reversed polarity $15.00 – 25.00 each
Install switches $20.00 – 40.00 each
Install light fixture $100.00 – 250.00
Exterior light fixture $175.00 – 250.00

 

Plumbing
Replace old (galvanized or steel) piping w/ copper /Pex $1,500.00 – 4,000.00
Replace main water line to residence $1,900.00 – 4,000.00
Replace interior main shut off valve $275.00 – 375.00
Replace water heater $550.00 – 1,200.00
* or lease-may not cost you except monthly charges as low as $20/mth
Average monthly water heater rental $20/mth-up
Unclogging Toilet $150.00 – 200.00
Toilet Replacement -supply & install $300.00 – up
Replace toilet seal $100.00 – 200.00
Replace flushing mechanism $125.00 – 175.00
Supply & install bidet $500.00 – up
Replace vanity & counter – single basin $300.00 – up
Replace vanity & counter – double Basin $500.00 – up
Replace basin – vanity $175.00 – up
Replace basin – pedestal $325.00 – up
Replace faucets $150.00 – up
Replace bathtub & new ceramic tiles $1,500.00 – up
Refinish existing tub $1000.00 – up
Replace shower & tub faucets $325.00 – up
Replace tile tub area $800.00 – up
Replace caulk bathtub $175.00 – 350.00
Replace leaking shower stall pan $1,000.00 – 2000.00
Reconstruction of ceramic tile shower stall $1,500.00 – up
New installation of ceramic tile shower stall $1,500.00 – up
Installation of new plastic tub enclosure $550.00 – 850.00
Install PVC or fibreglass shower stall $1200.00 – 2,000.00
Install Whirlpool / Jacuzzi tub $2,000.00 – up
Install exhaust fan $375.00 – 500.00
Complete bathroom renovation $9,000.00 – up
Construction of a basement bathroom -plumbing only $3,600.00 – up
Install laundry tub $350.00 – 500.00
Install laundry facilities – water supply, drain $1,000.00 – up
Supply & install kitchen sink – single $350.00 – up
Supply & install kitchen sink – double $400.00 – up
Supply & install dishwasher $500.00 – 1,000.00
Dishwasher hook-up – rough-in complete $145.00 – 195.00
Dishwasher hook-up – no rough-in /electrical needed e.g. $195.00 – 350.00
Supply & install garbage disposal $300.00 – 600.00
Install stove hood $150.00 – up
Install solid waste pump $1,600.00 – 2,000.00
Connect waste piping to municipal sewers $2,000.00 – up
Clear out obstructions in sewer line $195.00 – up
Repair collapsed sewer line section $1200.00 – up
Video observation / investigation $110.00 / hr – up
Install submersible well pump $800.00 – up
Install suction or jet pump $600.00 – 1,000.00
Replace sewage ejector pump $500.00 – 800.00
Replace pump tank $250.00 – 500.00
Install water softener $1,000.00 – up
* Rental or lease – installation usually free w/ contract of approx. $20.00 /mth
Water softener rental or lease $20.00 – up /mth.
Outdoor hose / water valve / sediment faucet $150.00 – 300.00 each
Replace sump pump $295.00 – 385.00

 

Insulation
Insulate attic to current standards $0.50 – 2.50 sq.ft.
Insulation blown into flat roof or wall cavity $2.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
Add attic vents $40.00 – 250.00 each
UFFI removal $10,000.00 – up
Exterior insulation using rigid boards $1,500.00 – up
Insulate basement interior $0.50 – up sq.ft.
Sprayed foam / uerethane foam $ ?

 

 

 

Renovation and Building Costs

 

 

Use the following information to get a good idea of the costs associated with this comprehensive list of small to large renovation and construction projects. If you have any other prices you think should be added or changed, please email us with any updates and or changes. All rights are reserved and this list is copyrighted but it can be used for personal use and any other use will only be allowed upon written permission from OntarioContractors.com.

Roofing & Flashing
Removal of existing material, disposal & clean-up. $0.50 – 2.00 sq.ft.
Garbage Bin – small $250
Garbage Bin – large $475
* additional $50 per pick-up and dumping fee from your local dump (tonnage) will be added to the above charges.

 

Roofing (material & labour)
1. Asphalt Shingles – felt base $1.50 – 1.75 sq.ft.
2. Roofing Labour only  
another rule of thumb is using the pitch number and multiplying it by the number of bundles to come up with the cost of labour plus 10 % – no removal of existing material. i.e. pitch * bundles = labour (+ 10 %)
3. Asphalt Shingles – fibreglass base $2.00 – 3.00 sq.ft.
4. Cedar Shakes – hand split $2.60 – 2.80 sq.ft.
5. Cedar Shingles – saw cut $2.40 – 3.00 sq.ft.
6. Steel shingles – painted $4.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
7. Steel shingles – vinyl coated $4.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
8. Steel roof – sheeting 3 times cost of ashphalt shingles  
9. Aluminum shingles – paint finish $5.50 – 5.25 sq.ft.
10. Plastic Shakes – colour through $3.50 – 5.25 sq.ft.
11. Tiles – Concrete or Clay $4.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
12. New slate roof $10.00 – 30.00 sq.ft.
13. Slate roof – with replacement $30.00 – 50.00 sq.ft.
14. New roof sheeting – plywood or waferboard $1.50 – 2.00 sq.ft.
15. Roll roofing $1.10 – 2.20 sq.ft.
16. Built up Tar & Gravel roof $4.00 – 6.00 sq.ft.
17. Membrane roof n/a 
18. Sprayed Polyurethane foam $1.60 – 2.50 sq.ft.
19. Painted Membrane $0.55 – 1.50 sq.ft.
* Contractor call out for repair – $300 minimum

 

Flashing
It is advisable to replace all roof flashing at the time a new roof is installed. The cost of installations at that time is minimal, compared to possible problems old flashing may cause if they remained. Counter flashing may be installed at any time over existing step or chimney flashing and can be colour coordinated to a homes exterior.
Step Flashing usually included w/roof price
Counter Flashing – galvanized sheet metal $1.50 – 2.50 lin.ft.
Counter Flashing – sheet aluminum $3.00 – 6.00 lin.ft.
Drip Edge – usually included $1.00 – 2.00 lin.ft.
Chimney Flashing – galvanized usually included
Chimney Cricket – aluminum or galvanized $200.00 – 500.00
Skylight Flashing – aluminum or galvanized $200.00 – up
Vinyl Flashing – patch repair only $175.00 – 275.00
Replace Parapet wall flashing $10.00 – 40.00 lin.ft.
Plumbing Vent flashing $95.00 – $155 each

 

 

Chimneys
Reconstruction of any Chimney is difficult to assess and no repair can be called typical, since many factors such as height, required scaffolding etc. will have to be taken into consideration. Therefore it is recommended that you call three contractors for estimates and base your choice not on price but the contractors reputation and references.
Re-brick Chimney above roofline – single flue $150.00 – up lin.ft.
Re-brick Chimney above roofline – double flue $200.00 – up lin.ft.
Replace Prefabed Chimney section $65.00 – 150.00 per section
Repoint Masonry – above roofline $20.00 – 50.00 per row
Install Chimney Cap $125.00 – 500.00 each
Chimney/rain Cap $35.00 – 100.00 each

 

 

Gutters & Downpipes
Gutters & downpipes – aluminum $1.50 – 4.00 lin.ft.
Supply extruded gutter only $2.00-3.00 lin.ft.
Gutters & downpipes – vinyl $2.50 – 4.00 lin.ft.
Gutters & downpipes – copper $10.00 – 25.00 lin.ft.
Downpipe Extension – replace $15.00 – 75.00 each
Eaves cleaning – end of fall $150.00 – 250.00

 

Fascia, Soffit & Exterior Trim – Supply & installed
All aluminum & vinyl soffit or fascia is usually installed over a solid base like plywood-extra is required for prefabrication.
Wood Fascia Board – non painted $2.00 – 3.75 lin.ft.
Aluminum fascia $1.80 – 3.50 lin.ft.
Vinyl fascia $1.70 – 3.00 lin.ft.
Aluminum soffits $1.70 – 3.00 lin.ft.
Vinyl soffits $1.70 – 3.00 lin.ft.
Decorative trims – wall mouldings $6.00 – up lin.ft.
Decorative & functional vents $85.00 – $150 each

 

Exterior Finishes
* Pricing is per square foot of “board” not per square foot of house space.
Aluminum siding-non insulated $1.90 – 3.00 sq.ft.
(if you were making the exterior truly maintenace free then you would have to add the costs for fascia, soffit,gutter & downpipe installation for the total price for a complete upgrade to aluminum siding-watch out for these pricing tricks or “extra’s” – see above pricing)
Aluminum siding – some insulation $2.40 – 4.80 sq.ft.
Aluminum siding – R2000 $3.60 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Vinyl siding – not insulated $1.80 – 3.60 sq.ft.
Hardboard Siding – non insulated $3.60 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Wood siding – paint grade $1.80 – 4.80 sq.ft.
Wood siding – clear cedar $3.60 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Vinyl shakes $1.80 – 3.60 sq.ft.
Aluminum cladding – of windows, sills, posts etc. $1.80 – 12.00 lin.ft.
Exterior Stucco – sand & cement $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Exterior Stucco – Latex based $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Repointing – brick work $7.00 -10.00 sq.ft.
Brick – new installation $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Brick extra’s -arches over windows,coined corners $24.00 – up each
Brick -cost per 1,000 (average);approx 3.33/sq.ft. $440.00 – 850.00
Brick -labour cost per 1,000; you supply sand $550.00 – up
Replace brick $18.00 – up sq.ft.
Parapet Wall – reconstruction $25.00 – up sq.ft.
Stone Work – Man made stone $12.00 – 13.40 sq.ft.
Stone Work – Natural stone $20.00 – 36.00 sq.ft.
Brick cleaning-Chemical wash $2.40 – 7.20 sq.ft.
Brick Sealing -after cleaning $0.65 – 1.80 sq.ft.
Exterior painting- fascia, soffit, doors, windows $1,200.00- up
Exterior painting- including trims & walls $2,500.00 – up
Foundation Parging $2.00 – 2.50 sq.ft.
Exterior foundation damp proofing $4,000.00 – up
Damp proofing – new house construction $1,200.00 – 1,500.00
* includes perimeter drainage tile, 3/4 gravel, tar spray & plastic membrane skirt – usually this is included in the foundation price
Perimeter drainage tiles, O-pipe $4,000.00 – up
Foundation Cracks -wet basement $400.00 – 500.00
Interior foundation damp proofing /French Drain installation $2,200.00 – up / – up
Yard drainage $250.00 – up
Storm Windows – supplied & installed $175.00 – up each
Storm doors $375.00 – up each
Resurface existing Asphalt driveway $2.00 – 3.00 sq.ft.
Asphalt driveway – new construction $1.00 – 1.25 sq.ft.
Seal Asphalt driveway $75.00 – up
Install interlocking paving stone driveway $2.00 – 7.00 sq.ft.
New concrete driveway – plain $4.00 – 7.00 sq.ft.
New concrete driveway – stamped; stampcrete $7.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Install wooden deck $1,200.00 – up
Deck – Supply and Install $20.00 sq.ft.
Concrete patio $6.00 – 10.00 sq.ft.
Concrete patio stones $2.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
Exterior basement stairway restoration $1,500 – up
Exterior basement stairway installation $4,000.00 – up
Exterior basement stairway installation – new house $1,200.00 – 1,500.00 each
Existing Exterior basement stairway – drainage $500.00 – up
Demolition and removal of detached garage $2,300 – up
Construction of a new detached garage – single $10,000.00 – up
Construction of a new detached garage – double $15,000.00 – up
Garage doors – single $800.00 – 1,500.00
Garage doors – double $1000.00 – 2,000.00
* eg. 2 maintenance free aluminum insulated doors for a new house construction or rough – in ready installation costs $1,200.00 in the London Area.
Garage door opener $350.00 – 500.00
Replace porch or deck flooring $3.00 – up
Replace porch or deck skirting $3.00 – up
Replace porch stairs – wood $200.00 – up
Replace porch stairs – concrete $300.00 – up
Replace porch stair railings $200.00 – up
Replace porch railings $8.00 – up lin.ft.
Retaining wall – wood $20.00 – up sq.ft.
Retaining wall – concrete $30.00 – up sq.ft.
Retaining wall – gabion;rock basket $25.00 – up sq.ft. /-up lin ft
Retaining wall – steel erosion control $130.00 -up lin.ft.
Property fencing – wood $15.00 – up lin.ft.
Property fencing – chain link $8.00 – up lin.ft.
Lawn – New sod $1.50 – 2.50 sq.ft.
Lawn – New seed; seeding – 1/4 acre lot $500.00 – up
Lawn sprinkler system $1,000.00 – up

 

Structure Modifications & Renovations
Foundation – Underpin one corner of house $3,000.00 – up
Foundation – Underpin or add $3,000.00 – up
Foundation – Lower basement floor by underpinning $5,000.00 – up
Lower basement floor with bench footings $5,000.00 – up
Replace load bearing basement beam $1,600.00 – up
Install additional joist along side for support $110.00 – up
Jackpost – install $325.00 – 550.00
Termite treatment – chemical $1,200.00 – up
Termite inspection $150.00 – 200.00
Opening or Removal of bearing wall $750.00 – 1,500.00
Opening & Installing door in interior wall $600.00 – up
Rebuild arch over door or window openings $500.00 – up
Install lintel in masonary wall opening $350.00 – up
Construct exterior basement stairwell $5,000.00 – up
Collar Ties $300.00 – up
Collar Tie bracing $150.00 – 250.00
Building an addition – basic quality $70.00 – 90.00 sq.ft.
Building an addition – good quality $90.00 – 110.00 sq.ft.
Building an addition – Custom quality $110.00 – up sq.ft.

 

Interior Renovations
Remove old plaster & install drywall $2.50 -5.00 sq.ft.
Install drywall over exiting plaster $1.50 – 3.00 (board) sq.ft.
New Plaster $8.00 – 11..00 sq.ft.
Install drywall in an unfinished area -supply and install/no insulation $7.00 – 9.00 sq.ft. floor space/.14 sq.ft. board
Texture spray ceiling $1.00 – up sq.ft.
* New house construction- 080 sq.ft. board -board, mud/tape, labour only.
Suspended Ceiling Tile Installation $2.50 – 6.00 sq.ft.
Acoustic Ceiling Tile Installation $1.50 – 5.00 sq.ft.
Sand & Finish existing wood floors $2.00 – 4.00 sq.ft.
Wood floor installation $5.50 – 12.00 sq.ft.
Ceramic Tile – Supply & install $10.00 – up sq.ft.
Ceramic Tile – labour only $5.50 -8.00 sq.ft.
Underlay – installation only $1.50 -2.00 sq.ft.
Vinyl floor tiles – supply & install $2.00 – up sq.ft.
Vinyl sheet flooring/linoleum $6.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – synthetic $15.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – natural wool $50.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – underpading $5.00 – up sq.yd.
Carpet – cleaning/steam/chemical $30.00 – up per room
Windows-replacement – 1,800 sq.ft. house $10,000.00 approx.
* amount may vary depending upon the situation.
Windows – sliders, casement, awning, doublehung – installed $140.00 – up
Windows – fixed, bay, bow, round – installed $1,200.00- up
Doors – exterior, insulated,metal $750.00 – up
Doors – exterior, solid wood $850.00 – up
Doors – exterior, fibreglass $900.00 – up
Doors – exterior, double, insul., metal $1,200.00 – up
Doors – exterior, double, solid wood $1,500.00 – up
Doors – exterior, double, fibreglass $2,000.00 – up
Replace entrance door latch & lock set $150.00 – up
Install decorative glass in entrance door $500.00 – up
New Storm door $450.00 – up
Install patio doors – brick wall $2,500.00 – up
Install patio doors – wood frame wall $2000.00 – up
Replace existing patio doors $1000.00 – 2000.00
Install basic skylight $1,000.00 – up
Install venting skylight $1,500.00 – up
Fireplace – Masonry $2,500.00 – up
* Note: Ont. Building Code for new house construction may require CO detector & fresh air exchanger ($2,500.00 – up) for wood burning fireplaces-gas does not require this.
Fireplace – Zero clearance $2,000.00 – up
Fireplace – Natural Gas $2,300.00 – up
Glass fireplace doors $250.00 – up
Install Fireplace damper $250.00 – up
Chimney cleaning $200.00 – 375.00
Video Chimney inspection $250.00 – up
Video Plumbing inspection $150.00 – up
* Video inspections start at $110/hr – plumbing, chimney – whatever the case.
Interior door – hollow core, hardware incl $150.00 – up
Interior door – solid core, hardware incl. $400.00 – up
French doors $600.00 – up
Bifold doors $75.00 – up
Louvred Bifold doors $150.00 – up
Sliding closet doors $200.00 – up
Sliding mirror closet doors $350.00 – up
Kitchen renovation – full $7,000.00 – up
Kitchen Cabinets – replace $150.00 – up lin.ft.
Kitchen counter – replace $25.00 – up lin.ft.
Stove fan-venting outside $475.00 – up
Ceiling fan – installed $200.00 – up
Painting – interior – whole house $1,500.00 – up
Wallpaper – hanging $2.00 – up sq.ft.
Central vacuum system $800.00 – up
Security System – you own $600.00 – up

 

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
Mid efficiency Furnace – supply & install $2,500.00 -3,500.00
High effiency furnace – supply & install $3,500.00 – 4,500.00
Boiler System $3,500.00 – up
Humidifier $400.00 -500.00
Electronic air cleaner $500.00 – 1,000.00
New circulating pump $450.00 – 700.00
Expansion tank $360.00 – 650.00
New Chimney liner $330.00 – 700.00
Remove old oil tank $300.00 – 800.00
Replace radiator $300.00 – 1,000.00
Replace radiator control valve $150.00 – 300.00
Install baseboard heaters $150.00 – 300.00
Convert furnace from oil to natural gas (if possible) $900.00 – 1,500.00
Change heating from Hot water to gas – single level $7,500.00 – 9,500.00
Change heating from Hot water to gas – double level $15,000.00 – 20,000.00
Change ducts from gravity to forced air $1,000.00 – 1,500.00
Duct cleaning $250.00 – 350.00
Annual Service $150.00 – 250.00
Air Conditioning – add to existing forced air $1,700.00 – 3,000.00
Heat Pump – add to existing /Geothermal $2,500.00 – 4,000.00 / ,000 & up
Replace compressor on heat pump/air conditioner $800.00 – 1,400.00
Air conditioning – independent system $8,000.00 – 15,000.00

 

Electrical
* Installation & supply is assumed, and the contractor is on the site for more than one electrical job listed below, otherwise sufficient allowances for travel time and increased costs/opportunity costs, should be made.
Upgrade service to 100 amps – incl. New breaker panel $850.00 – 1100.00
Upgrade service to 100 amps – no breaker panel $800.00 – 1200.00
Upgrade service to 200 amps $1,000.00 – 1,500.00
Replace main ground – public water sytem $200.00 – 350.00
Replace main ground – private well to ground rods $275.00 – 500.00
New Breaker Panel $700.00 – 1200.00
Auxiliary Panel $300.00 – 600.00
Replace circuit breaker – 20 amps or less $80.00 – 110.00
Add 120 V circuit – ie fridge, freezer etc $250.00 – 400.00
Install exterior outlet $250.00 – 400.00
Add 240 V circuit – ie. Stove, dryer $350.00 – 650.00
Add Kitchen split receptacle $250.00 – 450.00
Supply ground for std. receptacles $75.00 – 150.00
Replace receptacles with GFI (Ground Fault Interrupt) $90.00 – 120.00 each
Correct reversed polarity $15.00 – 25.00 each
Install switches $20.00 – 40.00 each
Install light fixture $100.00 – 250.00
Exterior light fixture $175.00 – 250.00

 

Plumbing
Replace old (galvanized or steel) piping w/ copper /Pex $1,500.00 – 4,000.00
Replace main water line to residence $1,900.00 – 4,000.00
Replace interior main shut off valve $275.00 – 375.00
Replace water heater $550.00 – 1,200.00
* or lease-may not cost you except monthly charges as low as $20/mth
Average monthly water heater rental $20/mth-up
Unclogging Toilet $150.00 – 200.00
Toilet Replacement -supply & install $300.00 – up
Replace toilet seal $100.00 – 200.00
Replace flushing mechanism $125.00 – 175.00
Supply & install bidet $500.00 – up
Replace vanity & counter – single basin $300.00 – up
Replace vanity & counter – double Basin $500.00 – up
Replace basin – vanity $175.00 – up
Replace basin – pedestal $325.00 – up
Replace faucets $150.00 – up
Replace bathtub & new ceramic tiles $1,500.00 – up
Refinish existing tub $1000.00 – up
Replace shower & tub faucets $325.00 – up
Replace tile tub area $800.00 – up
Replace caulk bathtub $175.00 – 350.00
Replace leaking shower stall pan $1,000.00 – 2000.00
Reconstruction of ceramic tile shower stall $1,500.00 – up
New installation of ceramic tile shower stall $1,500.00 – up
Installation of new plastic tub enclosure $550.00 – 850.00
Install PVC or fibreglass shower stall $1200.00 – 2,000.00
Install Whirlpool / Jacuzzi tub $2,000.00 – up
Install exhaust fan $375.00 – 500.00
Complete bathroom renovation $9,000.00 – up
Construction of a basement bathroom -plumbing only $3,600.00 – up
Install laundry tub $350.00 – 500.00
Install laundry facilities – water supply, drain $1,000.00 – up
Supply & install kitchen sink – single $350.00 – up
Supply & install kitchen sink – double $400.00 – up
Supply & install dishwasher $500.00 – 1,000.00
Dishwasher hook-up – rough-in complete $145.00 – 195.00
Dishwasher hook-up – no rough-in /electrical needed e.g. $195.00 – 350.00
Supply & install garbage disposal $300.00 – 600.00
Install stove hood $150.00 – up
Install solid waste pump $1,600.00 – 2,000.00
Connect waste piping to municipal sewers $2,000.00 – up
Clear out obstructions in sewer line $195.00 – up
Repair collapsed sewer line section $1200.00 – up
Video observation / investigation $110.00 / hr – up
Install submersible well pump $800.00 – up
Install suction or jet pump $600.00 – 1,000.00
Replace sewage ejector pump $500.00 – 800.00
Replace pump tank $250.00 – 500.00
Install water softener $1,000.00 – up
* Rental or lease – installation usually free w/ contract of approx. $20.00 /mth
Water softener rental or lease $20.00 – up /mth.
Outdoor hose / water valve / sediment faucet $150.00 – 300.00 each
Replace sump pump $295.00 – 385.00

 

Insulation
Insulate attic to current standards $0.50 – 2.50 sq.ft.
Insulation blown into flat roof or wall cavity $2.00 – 5.00 sq.ft.
Add attic vents $40.00 – 250.00 each
UFFI removal $10,000.00 – up
Exterior insulation using rigid boards $1,500.00 – up
Insulate basement interior $0.50 – up sq.ft.
Sprayed foam / uerethane foam $ ?

 

Eave Troughs – Winter Maintenace

Eave Troughs – Care and Maintenance

  Winter and eave troughs – This is where most home designers fail to take winter into consideration when designing homes.   Most home owners buy homes in the Spring, Summer and Fall, and never think about their homes eave troughs and downspouts. As a  home inspector in the Barrie, Alliston, Orillia and Innisfil area it amazes me how many homes have downspouts that discharge water directly onto sidewalks and driveways.    This leaves the home owner scrambling to keep ice from accumulating on these high traffic areas.

  Most new homes have weeping tile that their downspouts discharge into, which working well in warm weather. As the cold weather sets in these usually freeze up and can cause damage to your downspout as the ice can build up enough pressure to split the aluminum seam. I usually recommend that the home owner install a Tee at the junction of the downspout and weeping tile. This allows the water to run off from downspout when the weeping tile is frozen. The weeping tile will always remain frozen long after the eave trough and downspout have started moving water. This simple tip will aid in preventing ice dams and those annoying drips from your eave trough.

Fall Clean-up

Always ensure your eave troughs are clean and leak free prior to winter. You can manually clean your gutters or use a leaf blower to blow away the loose debris. Always place your ladder in a secure area, tied off to secure object is recommended, and do not support on gutters or downspouts. Make sure your roof is not slippery if climbing onto for cleaning.   After removing all debris, soften any solidified debris with water, flush with water.   This is when any leaks should be noted and repaired with caulking or recommended gutter sealing product. If water is not freely flowing from downspouts you may have to take them apart to removed stuck debris, this is easier to do in nice weather rather than waiting for winter weather to perform any maintenance.

  Adding downspouts is a quick fix for some eave trough problems that occur in winter. Some designers will run a single gutter around front or rear of house and if located in an area susceptible to collecting snow, can lead to ice build up.

Eave Trough: Slope is Essential

When eaves trough are installed by a contractor, they are positioned in such a way that they are slightly sloped towards the downspout. This allows water to be expelled efficiently. An important part of regular gutter maintenance is checking the slope of rain gutters. An easy way to do this is to climb up on a ladder and spray water into the gutters with a hose. The water should flow smoothly towards the downspout. If it simply sits there, the slope probably has to be adjusted. There are different opinions about the ideal slope of rain gutters, but a one inch slope for every 20 feet of gutter is a common suggestion.

Using a line level, locate and mark the high point and low point for your gutter. Then, readjust your eaves trough by repositioning the hangers. Replace any rusted or damaged hangers and screws.

Eave Trough Maintenance: When to Consult a Professional

  Most homeowners can take care of basic rain eaves maintenance on their own. Adjusting the slope, repairing leaks and holes, and replacing fascia boards are manageable tasks. However, for significant structural problems and repairs, it is best to call a professional. The same is true if you are thinking about having new eaves trough installed.

  This article is for advice only, and as my expertise is concentrated in the Barrie Real Estate market, may not apply to your area of residence.

  When Only the Best Will Do

Written by Roger Frost

 

 

 

 

Barrie Home Inspector
Orillia Home Inspector
Alliston Home Inspector
Barrie Home Inspections
Real Estate Inspector
Barrie Real Estate
Barrie Hair Salon

 

Observational Diagnostics for Home Energy Audits

Observational Diagnostics, Section One
There are many Observational Diagnostic techniques and experiential knowledge that have been learned by many individuals through the time that they spend in buildings which, in general, may not have made its way into the typical building evaluation resource materials. This Observation Diagnostics, Section One document was created as a way of collecting and disseminating an initial set this useful knowledge for those interested in developing their building diagnostic skills. This document is also a beginning effort to bring some key pieces of information together in one place from a dispersed set of resources.

Combustion
Fan or building caused negative pressure can cause spillage of flue gases, accelerated
introduction of carbon monoxide into the conditioned space, and flame roll out from
atmospherically vented combustion appliances that are located within the negative pressure field. For unvented heaters and gas ranges that have correct combustion adjustments the dominant concern is the amount of water vapor contained in the by-products of combustion which can be the equivalent of one gallon of water per 100,000 Btus burned. The dominant safe combustion feature built into direct vent furnaces and water heaters is that they are atmospherically uncoupled from conditioned space.

HVAC Systems
When trying to determine if the air handler that is connect to a forced air duct system is a heat pump look for items that can indicate an alternative system. If gas piping for propane or natural gas, fuel lines connected to a fuel oil tank, or water piping connect to a water heater are attached to the air handler, it is not a heat pump. If there is a heating and cooling thermostat and an outside compressor unit connected to the air handler through a refrigerant line set you are close to your identification. The last item to confirm is that the compressor runs during the heat mode and thus you have confirmed that heating is not provided solely by electric strip heat. For an air handler connected to a forced air duct system you can determine that it is an aerodynamically uncoupled, 90% plus efficient furnace system if there is a gas line connected to the air handler and there are two PVC pipes connecting the furnace with the outside environment. To fully document a split system, furnace and air conditioner forced air heating and cooling system you need to find and record three model number plates, one on the furnace, one on the a/c coil, and one on the compressor. A name plate on a gas furnace will include a variety of information including among other items the input Btu/hour, temperature rise range, type of gas, model number, manufacturer name, and manufacture date. An 80% plus efficient natural gas furnace can be identified by observing that is has a fan on the furnace that draws a metered volume of combusted gases through the heat exchanger. It will not have a drain to remove combustion condensate, have an open draft diverter, or be connected to one or two PVC pipes. A “package” gas furnace and air conditioning equipment unit is designed to be located outside the building and can be found placed on the ground or on the roof depending on local practices. It should not be located in a close crawl space, in a vented attic, or inside a mechanical room.

Ductwork
Incorporating building cavity air paths into a forced air duct system is most often associated with the largest amount of measured duct leakage. In regions where air conditioning is used it is not uncommon to find insulated supply duct systems, which are located in unconditioned spaces, on which the exterior vapor retarder has not been completely sealed. The most damaging potential outcome is that water vapor can enter the duct insulation and condense on the surface of the supply duct and drain down to the inside surface of the vapor retarder where it cannot escape. Thus it saturates the duct insulation resulting in insulation with very little R-value. The simplest method that can be used to identify the presence of condensed water vapor in duct insulation during the cooling season is to place the back of your hand against the vapor retarder at the bottom of the duct and feel both a cool temperature and the weight of water in the duct insulation. The simplest method that can be used to identify the presence of duct liner insulation inside a sheet metal duct system is to thump on the metal duct and listen for a dull sound.
The four most common types of material used to convey supply air in duct systems for homes are flex duct, thin gauge metal, duct board and building cavities. Inflatable tubes are being used in some commercial establishments but are not in general use in homes.
The best indicator of previous duct sealing is that mastic is present for a representative sample of connection locations across the return ducts, air handler, and supply ducts. A customer showing a receipt for a new system, the fact that a service tech has been on site, or that there is mastic at the air handler will not give you the information that you need.

Foundation Types
Stairs leading from the home’s main floor to a below grade space indicate that the home is constructed on a basement foundation.
To determine if a home has a crawl space foundation look for the presence of a crawl space entry. Depending on the local construction practices, the entry may be a door in the exterior perimeter foundation wall which may be outside or from within the garage, an access built into the main level floor, or through an interior wall on some split level homes.
One way to determine if a home is constructed on a slab foundation is to determine that there is an absence of a crawl space entry or stairs to a below grade space.
For an existing home that has been determined to have been built on a crawl space foundation to be further classified as a properly closed crawl space it must include six design elements. It must include moisture management and drying mechanism(s) that meet the moisture load, safe combustion appliance operation, correct thermal performance, correct fire safety materials, radon management, and applicable pest management standards. Additional elements may be present. The difference between a raised slab foundation system and a crawl space foundation system is that the slab is poured on top of fill that is inside a foundation wall that is one or more course of block above grade. There are suspended concrete slab floors built over crawl spaces which are a completely different type of construction.

Appliances
You will know that you are looking at a gas range that falls into the oldest category of gas ranges if you determine that the oven burner ignites using a standing pilot. New gas ranges use
electronic ignition. Observing that there is a glass window in an oven door will not tell you whether it is standing pilot or electronic ignition. Open the burner drawer and look for a pilot flame. Electronic ignition is also indicated by a clicking sound just prior to oven burner ignition. A variety of resources confirm that refrigerators with top freezers are the most energy efficient style. When you compare start with Energy Star units and to look at units that are the same size and have the same options. A variety of resources including ACEEE confirm that a currently manufactured refrigerator will use ½ the amount of energy as a refrigerator of the same size, style, and set of options that was manufactured in 1990.
Horizontal-axis (usually front-loading) style clothes washers have been determined to have the best potential for efficient operation. This includes both water and energy efficiency. Plus the spin cycle performance of these units reduces the water retained in the clothes thus reducing the dryer run time. One quick tip for identifying the age of an appliance is to look on the appliance name plate because the manufacture date is often listed. The Energy Star appliance label indicates that an appliance meets a set of standards for using significantly less energy than standard products of the same type.

Visual Indications of Condensation
In homes where the owner has installed a vent free heater(s) and turned off the forced air heating system which has its ducts located in the attic there is the potential that water will drip out of some of the ceiling supply registers. Spillage and or back drafting of combustion by-products from atmospherically vented water heaters can be identified by the visual identifier of corrosion built-up on the water pipes at the top of the water heater, especially on the cold water line. When mould growth is found only behind a chest of drawers located at an exterior wall it is an indication that the wall surface temperature has been or is at or below the dew point for the water vapor present in the interior air.
If in the basement of a home with a T-bar ceiling tile system the tiles are sagging down in the middle, there is the potential that during the cooling season warm, moist outside air is entering the space above the tiles, condensing, and being absorbed.

Moisture staining patterns can be observed in attic insulation around ceiling penetrations because during the heating season stack pressure is moving interior moist air from the home through the ceiling penetrations and into the attic where it condenses at the top of the insulation and is absorbed. Warm, moist air circulating above the floor insulation in a vented crawl space foundation home can result in rust and rust balls on nail ends that are penetrating through the sup-floor into the space above the floor insulation when it is not properly installed next to the sub-floor.

Combustion Equipment
Soot markings or heat stressed metal near the gas burner location are evidence of previous flame rollout for atmospheric venting furnaces, water heaters or space heaters.
If air current smoke will not enter the draft diverter of atmospheric venting combustion
equipment during operation it is an indication of a blocked chimney.
Space conditioning or water heating equipment is combustion based if a gas line and a vent pipe are present and connected to the unit. A gas range is an unvented combustion source when no range hood exists, the hood is a recirculation type, or the hood is not turned on during range use. An 80% plus efficient natural gas furnace can be identified by observing that is has a fan on the furnace that draws a metered volume of combusted gases through the heat exchanger. It will not have a drain to remove combustion condensate, have an open draft diverter, or be connected to one or two PVC pipes. Sealed combustion appliances are recommended to replace unvented combustion appliances such as space heaters.

Expected Life
The expected life of a new gas furnace that is not located in climates with corrosive salt air coastal environments is 20 years. This assumes proper installation and reasonable maintenance during its service life.

Kitchen and Bathroom Exhaust Fans
Exhaust fans in the kitchen and bathroom serve the important purpose of removing moisture created in these areas. The concern with these fans is whether or not they are properly vented to the outside and exhaust the correct amount of cfm of air flow.

The International Residential Code states that the bathroom exhaust should provide 50 cfm of air flow when in operation. The kitchen exhaust fan should provide 100 cfm of air flow. The issue is that often the fans do not exhaust to the outside. Bathroom fans are sometimes installed such that they are vented directly into the attic space above. Kitchen exhausts fans can be purchased that simply remove the moisture away from the cooking surface and exhaust it into the kitchen air. In order to determine whether the bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans are actually exhausting to the outside a number of items can be inspected. First, the presence of ductwork from the fan leading to the outside is a good clue that the fans are intended to exhaust to the outside of the building. Vent registers on
the outside of the house [walls or roof] can also be a clue that the fans are ducted orrectly.
Confirm that the damper is not taped shut. When inspecting kitchen exhaust fans a person can turn on the fan and feel with their hand above the edge of the hood. If you feel air flow the hood is a recirculation type and does not exhaust to outside. Another approach is to access the ductwork for the exhaust fan in question and follow it to the point at which it exits the building. Or turn the fan on and off and observe if the exterior damper opens and closes. Remember, sound level does not necessarily equal cfm air flow. If you are not formally measuring air flow, a relative assessment of cfm air flow can be made by placing a material over the fan air intake and observing if the cfm air flow creates enough suction to hold it in place. Three different items, toilet paper, paper towel, wash cloth, have been used to indicate different cfm air flow amounts. If the lightest item, toilet paper, falls down you have noise but totally inadequate cfm air flow.

Peroxide Uses and Tips – Great Stuff

This is what Oxi clean is…
did you know that????
3% peroxideThis was written by Becky Ransey of Indiana

“I would like to tell you of the benefits of that plain little old
bottle of 3% peroxide you can get for under $1.00 at any drug store. My
husband has been in the medical field for over 36 years, and most
doctors don’t tell you about peroxide, or they would lose thousands of
dollars.”

1. Take one capful (the little white cap that comes with the bottle)
and hold in your mouth for 10 minutes daily, then spit it out. (I do it
when I bathe)

No more canker sores and your teeth will be whiter without expensive
pastes. Use it instead of mouthwash. (Small print says mouth wash and
gargle right on the bottle)

2. Let your toothbrushes soak in a cup of “Peroxide” to keep them free
of germs.

3. Clean your counters, table tops with peroxide to kill germs and
leave a fresh smell. Simply put a little on your dishrag when you wipe,
or spray it on the counters.

4 After rinsing off your wooden cutting board, pour peroxide on it to
kill salmonella and other bacteria.

5. I had fungus on my feet for years – until I sprayed a 50/50 mixture
of peroxide and water on them (especially the toes) every night and let
dry.

6. Soak any infections or cuts in 3% peroxide for five to ten minutes
several times a day. My husband has seen gangrene that would not heal
with any medicine, but was healed by soaking in peroxide. Continue reading “Peroxide Uses and Tips — Great Stuff”

Foundations – Cracks and Cures

Concrete foundations are of two types – poured concrete and concrete block. Poured concrete is a modern manner of laying foundations, while concrete blocks are more traditional. Concrete blocks are preferred for their visual appeal and strength. Yet, as time passes, there may be degradation of concrete.

The prime cause of cracks in concrete foundation is seepage of water. Such cracks caused due to leakage of water are thin and hairline. They may widen over time, but they are present only in those areas where the seepage occurs. In order to repair leakage cracks, it is necessary first to investigate the source and the point from which the leakage originates.

There may be other reasons for concrete foundations to crumble. Soil may lose its moisture content in summer. There may be underground roots which may wither and die. Such natural causes make the soil shrink and hence the foundation may move. Though this movement is gradual, overtime it will cause cracks to occur. These cracks will be large gaping ones, running across the entire length of the foundation. They may even be in the form of tiny holes in certain places.

Whatever be the reason, cracks in the foundation are very perilous if ignored. Repair must be done as soon as possible. Difficulties involved in the repair process are influenced by how big the cracks are.

For tiny moisture created cracks, the repair is relatively simple and can be done by almost anyone. These cracks must first be brushed clean with a wire brush. A jet of water may be passed to remove any loose concrete particles within the crack. The crack is then allowed to dry completely and filled with concrete caulk. If the crack is large, then it is packed with patching materials that are specifically available for concrete. These patching materials must be wet when applied. They are limestone based, and they expand as they dry, filling up the crack completely. The finishing touch is to apply a sealant to the repaired crack.

But if the crack is sinister and not the do-it-yourself kind, then it is most prudent to shell out a few dollars and hire some good repairmen. Such cracks occur due to rods which may have rusted inside and snapped or because of deterioration of the materials present within the concrete. Some leakage cracks when ignored can also reach dangerous levels. Such cracks are more found in poured concrete.

Contractors treat the concrete foundation with urethane injections to extract the embedded water. They may even excavate the area around the foundation and replace the faulty tile or construct a provision for the water to lose contact with the foundation.

Foundation Repair

The principal function of a foundation of a home is to transfer the weight of a structure to its underlying soil and rocks. One of the factors that bring about the need for foundation repairs is improper foundation settling. Foundation settlement can devalue structures and also render them unsafe. Building on expansive clay, compressive or improperly contracted fill soils and improper maintenance in and around foundations are some of the major reasons of improper foundation settling. Another reason for improper foundation settlement is undetected or unsuspected air pockets in the ground below the area of construction. These may cave in and cause the integrity of the foundation to be compromised.

General symptoms of a structure needing foundation repairs are bulging or cracked walls and doors that don’t close properly. Building on expansive soils is the main culprit for foundation settlement. When only one part of the foundation either settles or heaves, cracks are formed in the foundation. The exterior warning signs of improper floor settling are rotation of walls, displaced moldings, cracked bricks and foundation and separation around doors and windows from the walls. Interior warning signs of improper floor settling are cracks on the floor, sheet rock and misalignment in doors and windows.

There are many ways of doing foundation repair. Cement, stone, steel or wood were used extensively in past techniques. They would be forced into the ground in a bid to salvage the strength of these foundations. However, this type of repair work has been known to be futile. Two of the most successful ways of foundation repairs are slab jacking and the Piering method. Piering is also known as hydraulic jacking.

Slab jacking is the process of adding grout beneath a slab or beam. This produces a lifting force and restores the said beam or slab to almost its original elevation and adds to its strength. Care should be taken that the amount of sand should be perfect while adding grout.

During Piering, steel posts are driven through unstable soil. Hydraulic jacks are used to stabilize concrete slabs which are weakened due to the changes taking place in the underlying soil. Steel beams are used in the Piering method because concrete has great compressive strength. Though Piers are able to transfer huge downward loads without the help of reinforcing steel, steel is used in the piers for prevention of the pier from being pulled apart or sheared by forces of the expansive soils. The repairs normally take 21 to 30 days, however this time frame can vary depending on soil conditions and weather delays.

This article is for general knowledge only, always consult with an expert regarding any structural design issues or faults.

 

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Fix Your Damp Basements

A wet basement can be obvious – water trickling across the floor or standing several inches deep at the base of the stairs. But there also are less obvious signs.

A wet basement may just feel humid and have a damp, stuffy smell. If so, wood in contact with concrete may be wet or decaying. Efflorescence, a chalky white substance left by the evaporation of water, may be seen on the walls. Basement floor tiles may be loose or popped. A carpeted floor may smell musty.

Find the Water
Fixing a wet basement begins with finding the cause. Infiltration of surface water, infiltration of groundwater, presence of outside humidity, and presence of indoor humidity are common causes of wet basements.

Surface water intrusion is when water runs toward the foundation and finds an entry. Groundwater enters through the walls and floor by wicking action or by hydrostatic pressure when the surrounding soil is saturated or the water table is high.

Warm, moist summer air can enter a house and condense on the basement’s cooler floor or walls. Indoor activities,like an improperly vented dryer, can create humidity that settles in the basement.

Fix the Problem
To avoid ongoing problems with mold or mildew, get rid of any water-damaged furnishings and possessions unless they can be properly cleaned. Then identify and treat the source of the problem.

Surface Water
If surface water is the culprit, watch how the roof drainage system works and where rain water flows during a rainstorm.

A gutter or downspout plugged with debris may be sending rainwater over the gutter, down along the foundation, and into the house. Regular cleaning or installing a product that prevents debris from getting into the trough will end that problem.

If there is no debris but rainwater is still overflowing, the downspouts may be clogged, incorrectly sized for the roof area, or insufficient for the size of the house. Consider getting larger gutters, adding another downspout, or increasing the downspout size and its corresponding gutter opening.

Downspout extensions that direct rainwater away from the house may be improperly placed or not long enough to protect the home from surface water. Experts suggest extensions of at least 10 feet to get the discharge away from the house without sending water into a neighbor’s yard.

Help keep your basement dry by maintaining a good gutter system to direct surface water away from the house.

Check the grade to see if it has been improperly set or has settled in spots, sending water toward the foundation. Check paved areas, driveways, and walkways that may be directing water toward the house. Proper slope has to be regained and may mean replacing pavement.

Basement window wells and stairwells can collect water, causing leaks into the basement. For a window well, put a drain system underneath, cover it with a clear plastic cover and be sure the well has a raised-lip edge to repel water. For a stairwell, consider a raised-lip edge and a roof to cover the area.

Groundwater
Groundwater is difficult to control. The ground surrounding a basement may become saturated with rainwater or an underground spring, especially if the soil is a heavy clay. Water pressure from saturated soil will push water through tiny cracks in the foundation. If groundwater levels rise above the basement floor, water will leak in.

If the problem is small, a homeowner may try patching cracks from the inside. Interior crack repair does not prevent water from getting into the exterior section of the wall. Water trapped inside the basement wall can weaken the foundation. After pinpointing the source, a homeowner might dig down along the foundation to see if outer wall repairs are small or large before making a repair decision.

Large cracks may require a structural engineer or basement specialist to fix any cracks, seal the outside, and install a drain around the perimeter of the house.

Humidity
Warm moist air, from inside activities or the outside, can condense on cooler basement walls and floors. Install energy-efficient windows, use a dehumidifier or air conditioner, and circulate household air to prevent moisture buildup.

Indoor humidity can have several sources. A working sump pump can produce unwanted humidity, but can be easily controlled. Put a tight-sealing cover on the sump pump and install a floor drain with a trap so that water can get to the sump.

A dirt floor or crawlspace may also emit moisture. One possibility is to pour a concrete floor over a sealed polyethylene moisture barrier on the floor. For crawlspaces, a ground cover will reduce the moisture coming up through the earth. Insulate perimeter walls if water pipes or heating ducts are in that area. Insulate cold-water pipes and walls. Install proper dryer exhausts and vent basement showers directly outside. Don’t hang wet laundry in the basement.

Fixing a wet basement may mean replacing decaying wood. If wood supports or framing appear water damaged, check with a professional to see if there are structural problems.

This article is provided by the “Barrie Home Inspector” as information only, always consult with an expert or contractor prior to commencing any projects. Read other articles by the “Barrie Home Inspector” at http://diy.napoleon.cc

Waterfront Cottage Inspections in Barrie ON

"Cottages" in Eastern Canada are generally located next to lakes, rivers, or the ocean in forested areas. They are used as a place to spend holidays with friends and family; common activities including swimming, canoeing, waterskiing, fishing, hiking, and sailing. There are also many well-known summer colonies.

How many times has your cottage been added onto?  Do you think the septic tank and leeching bed was upgraded every time?  Probably not and also there was probably not even a building permit taken out.   The further north you go the less likelihood of a building conforming to the Building Code.

If your cottage has a Shore Line Allowance, which is registered on title, you may want to make application to have it removed or closed. You would be responsible for the costs which are determined by the municipality. The purchasing and closing costs will vary, in some areas it may be substantial.

The most common form of supplying water from the well to the cottage is by a jet pump. The jet pump can be mounted in the cottage or home or in a pump house. This pump works by impeller and will not pump air which can lead to pump requiring priming if water source is not air tight.

 
These pumps draw water with water, in the pumping action. This therefore requires the lines to be ‘primed’, or filled with water before they will work. If a pump loses it’s ‘prime’ it will not pump anymore water until this is addressed. To stop the water from flowing back down into the well a one-way check valve is installed on the feeder line.

Some townships have implemented a septic tank inspection program at the request of waterfront property owners.  Many of the defects identified in Tiny and at Charleston Lake were minor and did not affect the system’s operation, but significant problems were also uncovered. Everything from tree roots, to leaks, to structures being built atop drainage beds have been discovered – all problems that will hamper the system’s proper operation.  

If buying a Cottage in Barrie, Midland, Orillia, Rama, Brechin, Lagoon City, Severn Falls or in this general area contact the Barrie Home Inspector for a Professional Cottage Inspection.  With over 4,000 inspections and as a Certified Building Code Official your investment is in good hands

Copper Plumbing and Your Residential or Commercial Building

Copper Plumbing and Your Home

 

Older homes which have not had their plumbing distribution upgraded can sometimes experience pin hole leaks in their pipes which is the first sign that their whole plumbing supply systems may require replacement.

 

Copper pipe can be eaten away by corrosion. The common causes of corrosion are; PH of water, O2 in water, presence of minerals, temperature of water and the velocity of the water.

 

Water PH – This is an issue where the PH is low. Low PH can lead to early corrosion of pipes which can be avoided with water treatment systems. (water softeners) This option is usually not available to apartment buildings etc where the consent of all tenants would be required.

 

Oxygen – Introducing fresh oxygen to your water system is supplying organisms that eat away at your plumbing distribution system.

 

Minerals – The coating of minerals on your plumbing distribution systems can sometimes protect and slow down the corrosion process happening in your copper pipes.

 

Water Temp – High water temperatures increase the rate of corrosion. Organisms thrive in warmer water which greatly accelerates the damage to your pipes.

 

Velocity –   Water travelling at a faster rate “scours” the pipe from minerals etc which causes wear to pipe. Creation of water bubbles and their collapse also cause creation of pinholes through a process known as Capitation.

 

Most plumbing systems are estimated to last 20 years before replacement is necessary. Pin hole leaks usually occur on hot water lines and then move on to cold water lines which then involves the whole system where an economical decision must be made to keep repairing or replacing complete system.

 

Copper pipe comes in different grades based on the thickness of the copper pipe wall. The thicker the wall the longer life expectancy. Copper comes in three grades, M for thin wall pipe used mainly inside homes, L for thicker wall pipe, used mainly outside for water services and K, the thickest, used mainly between water mains and the water meter. Copper lasts a long time, is durable and connects well to valves.

If you are replacing your plumbing in your home ensure you know type of copper pipe is being installed. Upgrading to thicker pipe is not an expensive procedure where labour is the major cost.

Copper should not be installed if the water has a PH of 6.5 or less.   The majority of public utilities supply water at a PH between 7.2 and 8.0 .   Many of the utilities that have source water with a PH below 6.5 are treating the water to raise the PH.  Private well water systems often have a PH below 6.5.   When this it the case, installing a treatment system to make the water less acidic becomes a good idea.

If your water is highly corrosive or has other problems, PEX is now used in many new homes and plumbing retrofits.

PEX is an acronym for cross-linked polyethylene. The "PE" refers to the raw material used to make PEX (Polyethylene), and the "X" refers to the cross-linking of the polyethylene across its molecular chains. The molecular chains are linked into a three-dimensional network that makes PEX remarkably durable within a wide range of temperatures, pressures and chemicals.

  • Flexible, installed with fewer fittings than rigid plumbing systems. A good choice for re-piping and for new homes. Works well for corrosive water conditions.  
  • It can stretch to accommodate the expansion of freezing water and then return to its original size when water thaws. Although it is highly freeze-resistant, no material is freeze-break proof.

One issue with PEX and CPVC, as related to me by a plumber friend who lives in the country, is that mice tend to get into wall cavities and with their ability to chew through things, flexible plumbing could be susceptible to leaks.

Galvanized Plumbing – Although not used in newer homes there are some older homes that still have galvanized plumbing in their home. Insurance companies are very reluctant to insure homes with galvanized plumbing. As explained to me, galvanized plumbing corrodes from the inside out and gives no indication of impending ruptures of pressurized pipe which can lead to expensive clean ups and claims.

If you have this have this type of plumbing expect only 40 years of use from it. The main problem with the pipe is that water will be severely restricted by corrosion that eventually fills the pipe completely. Another problem is the mismatch of metals between the brass valves and the steel. Whenever steel pipe meets copper or brass, you will see rapid corrosion of the steel pipe. Dielectric unions can be used between copper and steel pipes, however some of these unions will close off flow in a short time. In some cities they prefer using a 6" brass nipple between copper and steel pipes. The problem with dielectric unions is that it breaks the grounding effect if a live electrical wire comes in contact with a pipe. Most cities will requre the two pipes to be bonded electrically to maintain the safety of grounded pipes. If your house is over 30 years old, you can plan on replacing pipes to maintain water flow.

Having your home inspected by a Professional Home inspector can fore warn you of existing and problems that may occur in the future. For Peace of Mind during your next residential or commercial purchase call the Barrie Home Inspector

 

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Concrete Crack Repair – Types and Methods

Polyurethane Foams for Low Pressure Injection Crack Repair

What is the better choice: polyurethane or epoxy? Epoxy is the better choice if structural strength is required to be maintained. If the crack is only repaired to prevent water leakage then either product can accomplish this task.

Cause of Cracks

Lack of joints, to accommodate drying shrinkage and thermal movement during the construction phase is one of the major causes of concrete cracks. Settlement and overloading are also common causes of cracking. Cracks usually appear within the first month after construction. These cracks can leak as soon as they are formed or might expand and leak later. Crack can grow and cause problems as they expand.

How Cracks Grow

Moisture, which is the worst enemy of homes, enters the tiny cracks in the concrete and in colder weather, freezes, enlarging the crack. Also, movement of soils surrounding your home, through settling, can also cause expansion of your cracks. In extreme cases, soils that are unstable can overcome the inherent strength of concrete causing crack and expansion.

Cracks caused by construction, heat, freezing and settlement can be corrected by injection. Cracks caused by unstable soils must have soil problem stabilized prior to attempting injection corrective methods.

Low Pressure Injection

This method of injecting polymers into the concrete is adequate for repairs of cracks not involving high volumes of water. High-pressure injection is better suited for this type of application. Low pressure is defined as injection pressures between 20 to 40 psi and can be used with either ports or surface injection. Pressures as high as 250 psi may be used.

High Pressure Injection

1,000 to 10,000 psi utilizing injection packers usually placed in holes drilled at 45 degrees to intersect the interior of the crack. This is common method of repair using polyurethane foam. High cost of packers, clean up of excess, potential stress damage and dangers of using high pressure are overcome by using low-pressure injection methods.

The use of surface ports (with one-way check valves) together with low-pressure injection of a sealed crack eliminates these problems in most situations. The injection of high-density foam is an effective water proofing method.

The best method for low-pressure crack repair is to slowly inject liquid polymer into crack until crack is completely filled, filling of adjacent surface port is visual confirmation. Using pressures above the 40-psi will allow polymer to rise and may indicate a false presence of the polymer filling voids.

Methods of Surface Sealing and Placing of Surface Ports

Surfaces are first cleaned with wire brush, and then surface ports are placed along crack at intervals equal to the thickness of the wall. The surface crack is then filled with epoxy paste which when sufficiently hardened allows filling of surface ports to begin. Hydraulic cement is used when cracks are actively “wet”. The ports must then be anchored to prevent blowing off during injection.

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